25 February




Gerald Viagra Online at good prices Cadogan
British School at Athens

Early Minoan Knossos: a few viagra online canada new thoughts

This paper starts from the Early Minoan excavations that were part of Sinclair Hood’s programme of stratigraphic excavations at Knossos between 1957 and 1961. Three third millennium sites were investigated: the EM I Palace Well, in the Northeast Quarter of the Palace; Royal Road: North, with stratified domestic contexts dating from later EM IIA to later EM III; and the EM IIB–III Early Houses below the South Front of the Palace, which include the EM III South Front House. The publication of these sites, by Hood and myself, is due to appear this year.
The Palace Well (17.2 m deep) is the first Bronze Age well known at Knossos (but there is a well dating to FN IV at Fourni in east Crete). Of its three distinct deposits, the first two are relevant. The lowest deposit 1 represents the primary use of the Well, and produced large scored ware jugs, missing their handles. The main deposit 2 (10–11 m deep) was a fill that included high-quality dark grey burnish ware chalices and pedestal bowls with pattern burnish decoration, painted jugs, pithoi (and apparently bins of unbaked clay) and a rare fragment of a light grey ware suspension pot, that is probably an import from the Mesara. There seems to be a full range of domestic pottery that defines Early Minoan I at Knossos: whether it should still be assigned  to EM IA will be discussed. Other finds include obsidian, two olive pips and the impression of a vine leaf on a mud brick. There is plentiful evidence of fire —  whether from a destruction of part or all of the EM I settlement, we cannot say.
As a remarkable feat that probably involved a water diviner and/or a master well digger, as well a stringent adherence to social hygiene once it was operating, the Well offers important evidence for the Knossos community of Early Minoan I. The mixed animal bones, taken with the pottery, tend to suggest commensality rather than larger-scale drinking and feasting.
The excavations in Royal Road: North are useful for showing the expansion of the Knossos settlement northwards in later EM IIA, probably slightly later than the expansion westwards as seen in the West Court House and Warren’s excavations in Royal Road: South, and for a sequence of floors and levels that continued into later EM III. It seems likely that Vasiliki ware first appeared at Knossos already in (later) EM IIA. The EM levels lay beneath a Late Minoan IA floor, and that beneath the Late Minoan IB floor with evidence for an here ivory workshop.
The excavations in the Early Houses show expansion southwards in EM IIB, after or at the end of which the substantial South Front House was built. With two phases in EM III (and perhaps continuing into MM IA), this may have been erected to mark or guard the southern approach to the central area of the settlement, in this way perhaps anticipating the later South House. Two deposits of EM IIB were found in the 1957–61 excavations, and an important, if fairly small, deposit of Early Minoan III as a fill between two red plaster floors, that the late Nikoloas Platon found first, during conservation work in 1957. This fill included a fragment of an East Cretan Early Minoan III jar, and a clay sealing shaped like a truncated champagne cork with the impression of a seal of the Parading Lions group — which is valuable evidence for seal chronology, coming from a well dated settlement context.
These three excavations help to fill out the picture of Knossos’s development during the third millennium: considerable community organisation in Early Minoan I; growth of the settlement to the north in EM IIA and south in EM IIB; and the construction of an important building in EM III, that may be set alongside other developments that include the first known of the built roads, buildings below the West Court, the North-West Terrace, perhaps part of the first truly monumental building (palace?) at Knossos, and perhaps the Hypogaeum and the Keep,  if that did go back to EM III — and if so, one might perhaps imagine it as a northern counterpart to the South Front House. The burial places, however, of Early Minoan Knossos remain a big unknown.




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